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N. N. Wig

Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education và Research, Chandigarh, India


Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
Address for correspondence: Dr. N. N. Wig, 279, Sector 6, Panchkula - 134 109, Haryana, India. E-mail: ni.oc.oohay
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alượt thích 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, và reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Emperor Ashoka is widely regarded as one of the greademo rulers of India. This paper mainly giao dịch with his medical condition as recorded in the Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka as well as in the Buddhist texts of North India và Nepal. These sources mention his skin disorder which is described as very rough and unpleasant to touch. He is also known to lớn have sầu episodes of loss of consciousness at various times in his life. One of the earliest representations of Ashoka, about 100 years after his death at one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa, shows Ashoka fainting when visiting the Bodhi tree and being held by his queens. In this sculpture, Emperor Ashoka is shown as a man of short height, large head and a paunchy abdomen. In this paper, it is speculated that Emperor Ashoka was probably suffering from von Recklinghausen disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), which could explain his skin condition, episodes of loss of consciousness (probably epilepsy) & other bodily deformities.


Keywords: Emperor Ashoka, fainting episodes, neurofibromatosis, skin disorder, von Recklinghausen disease

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is to lớn consider the skin disorder và other illnesses of Emperor Ashoka and to suggest a possible medical diagnosis for his condition. Emperor Ashoka is generally regarded as one of the greathử nghiệm rulers of India who ruled about some 2250 years ago. His empire covered most of the countries except perhaps the Southern tip of India và also extended lớn what is now Pakischảy và Afghanistung. Surprisingly most of what we currently know in the history about this great emperor has been put together relatively recently, during the last 200 years or so after the arrival of East India Company. Governor General Warren Hastings and Sir William Jones, a senior judge in Calcutta"s Supreme Court started the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784. Sir William Jones was a great scholar, and he is generally recognized as the “Father of Indian Studies.” Asiatic Society of Bengal soon became the center where in regular meetings various new discoveries about Indian history, especially of the pre Musllặng period were presented & discussed. It also started a retìm kiếm journal, which recorded important findings of various historical sites, pillars, writings on Rocks, coins found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, etc., Records of the Asiatic Society of Bengal are a rich source of ancient history of India. It is a fascinating story how step by step various people collected information about Mauryan dynasty kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara, Ashoka và their successors. This is very well described in John Keay"s Book “India Discovered" (1981)<1> and even more comprehensively covered in the recent book “Ashoka – The Search for the India"s Lost Emperor” by Charles Allen.<2,1> These researches have unfolded a glorious chapter in the early history of our country. One may also mention in passing that even the full life history of Mahatma Buddha was not clearly known at that time, và some early scholars even suggested that he could be an “African” conqueror.


SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Historically the information about Emperor Ashoka has been collected from various sources. Most important source is of course, various writings (Edicts) engraved on Rocks và some stone pillars found in different parts of India and Pakischảy at places as far as apart as Bihar, Odisha, Gujarat, Karnataka, North West Frontier Province in Pakistung và even in Afghanischảy. Some of the best known Roông xã Edicts are in Girnar (Junaragh District, Gujarat) và Ashoka pillars now at Ferozeshah Kotla Cricket Ground in Delhi (originally from Western U.Phường.) & in Allahabad (originally from Kausambhi). In these Edicts, Ashoka usually refers to himself as Devam – Piya (Beloved of the Gods) and King Piyadaham mê (pleasant to lớn behold).

Apart from these Roông chồng and Pillar Edicts, there are two other main written sources about Ashoka"s life, one from Sri Lanka và one from Nepal-both Buddhist texts. The Sri Lankan reference is from the book “Mahavansha” or the Great Dynastic Chronicle, (earlier called Deepavansha – or a chronicle of the Island). This book contains detailed reference of King Ashoka, how he sent his son Mahinda và daughter Sanghamitta to propagate Buddhism in Sri Lanka, how he completely changed after battle of Kalinga and turned to lớn Buddhism etc., The language of this book is Pali – variation of Prakrit, which was the spoken language in Magadh (Bihar) at that time.

The second source is the book Divyavadmãng cầu, which is Mahayamãng cầu or Northern Buddhist tradition. It is written in Sanskrit, – which was the language of elites. One of the 38 stories in this book is “Ashokavadana” or Legkết thúc of King Ashoka setout in nearly 10,000 verses.

Both these versions, Northern và Southern Buddhist accounts tell the story of King Ashoka with of course, significant differences as per religious traditions of North (Mahayana) & South (Theravada). Both groups of writings point out how Ashoka was a ruthless ruler before he turned Buddhist. He is known to have sầu killed almost all his hundred or so step brothers who could have been possible claimants khổng lồ his throne. By his order, terrible tortures were inflicted on prisoners in his jail in Patliputra. Earlier in life he was often referred to as Chandomain authority Ashoka or Ashoka – the Ferocious.” However, after becoming Buddhist he became known as “Dharma Ashoka.”

Numerous historians have lavished exceptional praise about the later day Ashoka. His rule by “Dharma” or moral force & with “Ahimsa” or nonviolence as depicted in his Edicts is indeed a rare example in world history.<3> As Wells in his famous book, “The Outline of History” has written “Aao ước the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history – the name of Ashoka shines và shines almost alone, a star. From the Volga to lớn Japan his name is still honored.” To Ashoka must also go the credit of one of the earliest idea of a “Welfare State” in history when in his Edicts he says that he considers all his subjects as his children và their welfare is his responsibility.


MEDICAL HISTORY OF KING ASHOKA

As stated in the beginning, the main purpose of this article is to lớn consider various medical illnesses of King Ashoka as described in historical records & which, to lớn best of our knowledge have sầu not been medically analyzed or written about before. The bulk of the medical information about Ashoka as mentioned in this article has been obtained from recently published book “Ashoka – the search for India"s Lost Emperor” by Charles Allen (2013).<2>

The first medical condition which is very striking is Ashoka"s skin disorder. It is described as “rough và unpleasant to lớn touch.”<2> Charles Allen in his book “Ashoka” writes that it made hlặng so unattractive sầu that his father Bindusara wanted nothing lớn do with him và sent him away from Patliputra. There are further references lớn his skin condition in Northern Buddhist. “Legend of King Ashoka.” First there is the story that in earlier life Ashoka as a child met Gautama Buddha who asked for alms (Bhiksha). Ashoka playfully put some dust or dirt in his begging bowl. As a punishment for this act (Karma) in the next life when he became a king, he had skin that had the texture like pebbles or dust which he gave to Lord Buddha. Then there is reference in Legkết thúc of Ashoka, how the earlier wrathful or Chanda Ashoka ordered burning alive sầu all his queens when he learnt that they disliked caressing his skin! There is also a reference to a court diviner (Raj Jyothshi) declaring that Ashoka"s body toàn thân bears certain “inauspicious” marks for which he tried lớn remove by performing some meritorious deeds.

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The second very clear medical condition, which is described, are the episodes of fainting or unconsciousness at various time in his life. There are several such episodes described in Sri Lanka"s Great Dynastic Chronicle. For example, when on pilgrimage khổng lồ various Buddhist places, at Kushinagra, Ashoka is so much overcome with emotions that he fainted và had lớn be revived by attendants. Similar episode happened when he visited the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, where, he again fainted. This scene is depicted in one of the gates of Sanbỏ ra Stupage authority where Ashoka is shown fainting and being held by his queens (Photograph in Charles Allen"s book page 344).<2>

The third reference to his health condition is toward the kết thúc of his life when Ashoka is seriously ill & “an impure substance was oozing from his pores.” The queen Tishyarakshita ordered a tìm kiếm to find a man with similar illness. A large worm was found in the belly of that man. After trying various remedies, the queen succeeded in killing the worm by onion juice. The onion was generally considered as unclean vegetable in religious belief, but the queen gave onion treatment lớn king Ashoka & he was cured by that. It is also worth noting how the images of Ashoka have sầu undergone changes in Indian sculpture.<2> As Charlies Allen points out in his book, the sculpture at gates of Sanchi Stupage authority are probably some of the earliest images, made <100 years of Ashoka"s death. In these sculpture images at Sanđưa ra gates, Ashoka is shown probably as the really was: “A stumpy, fat-faced and fragile king with a tendency lớn faint under găng tay.” Two centuries later at Amravati, he is now shown as a handsome, tall, Chakravarti Monarch, embodiment of Buddhist Dharma on earth.<2> His ugliness và frailties are all forgotten now.


MEDICAL INTERPRETATION OF ASHOKA"S ILLNESS

Hence, we have sầu the following available information about king Ashoka"s health:

He had a gross skin condition in which his skin was like crude dust or dirt. It was unpleasant khổng lồ look at và unpleasant lớn touch

He had many episodes of loss of consciousness

His father Bindusara is also known lớn have “spots” on his skin as indicated by his name.


FINAL MEDICAL ASSESSMENT

It is of course, very risky to lớn make a modern diagnosis of medical conditions of sometoàn thân who live sầu more than 2000 years ago. All we have sầu is the descriptions given in some Buddhist texts related lớn Ashoka"s life.

In our opinion, putting all the facts together, it seems likely that King Ashoka suffered from what we now Điện thoại tư vấn, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (von Recklinghausen"s disease)<4> The well-known Harrison"s Principles of Internal Medicine describes von Recklinghausen"s disease as “characterized by cutaneous (skin) neurofibromas & pigmented lesions of skin called “Café-au lait spots.” Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve tumors. They are present as multiple, palpable, rubbery, tumors in the skin. They are generally asymptomatic but at time many have sầu in addition hydrocephalus (large head), scoliosis, short stature, hypertension, epilepsy and mental retardation.

The mô tả tìm kiếm seems to fit in well with King Ashoka"s skin condition và the fainting fits may have sầu been due to lớn epilepsy. One can also speculate about his short height probably due lớn scoliosis and his large head could be a sign of hydrocephalus. He certainly did not have sầu mental retardation; on the other h&, he was exceptionally intelligent.

We are conscious of the speculative nature of our medical interpretation, but his skin condition, and fainting episodes strongly point khổng lồ this possibility. His short stature & large face further support this hypothesis. The name of Ashoka"s father – Bindusara (spotted one) also suggests the possibility of a hereditary character of the skin disorder, which is known in von Recklinghausen disease.

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We are grateful khổng lồ Professor B. K. Sharma, former Professor of Medicine and Director, Postgraduate Institute, Chandigarh for his help & encouragement in writing of this paper.


Footnotes


Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared


REFERENCES


1. John K. England: Windward An imprint of W.H. Smith và Sons; 1981. India Discovered.
2. Allen C. London: Abacus, An imprint of Little, Brown Book Group; 2013. Ashoka – The tìm kiếm for India"s Lost Emperor.
3. Wells HG. London: Cassel & Company Ltd; 1930. The Outline of History. Popular Edition; p. 402.
4. Sagar SM, Israel MA. Neurofibromatosis type I, (von Recklinghausen diseases) In: Anthony S, Fauci, Euren Braunwald, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, Dan L. Longo, Larry J. Jameson, et al., editors. Harrison"s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. McGraw Hill, Medical, New York: 2008. p. 2607.
Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

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